A mental health disorder, sometimes referred to as a psychiatric disorder or mental disease, is a condition that impairs a person’s ability to operate daily or causes considerable discomfort in terms of thoughts, feelings, behavior, or mood. These conditions can affect many areas of life, such as relationships, employment, and general quality of life, and they can range in severity from mild to severe.

Examples of mental health conditions include the following:

  • Anxiety Disorders: These include panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and particular phobias.
  • Mood Disorders: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Bipolar Disorder, and Persistent Depressive Disorder (dysthymia)
  • Psychotic disorders: These include cognitive, perceptual, emotional, and behavioral abnormalities associated with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.
  • Obsessive-Compulsive and Associated Disorders: These encompass hoarding disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
  • Disorders Related to Stress and Trauma: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, and adjustment disorders are a few examples of these.
  • Addictive and substance-related disorders: These comprise gambling disorders and substance use disorders (such as alcoholism and opioid addiction).
  • Eating disorders: This includes binge-eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa.
  • Neurodevelopmental disorders: This includes intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Numerous factors, including genetic, biochemical, environmental, and psychological ones, might contribute to these illnesses. Depending on the exact disease and the needs of each patient, different treatment modalities may be used, such as medication, psychotherapy, lifestyle modifications, and support services.

 

Warning Signs

For early intervention and support, it is essential to identify warning indications of mental health concerns. Here are a few typical red flags:

  • Mood changes: Persistent sadness, irritability, anger, or mood swings that interfere with daily functioning.
  • Behavioral changes: Withdrawal from social activities, increased isolation, changes in sleep or eating patterns, or engaging in dangerous behaviors.
  • Inability to focus: inability to concentrate, recall information, or make decisions.
  • Physical symptoms include headaches, unexplained aches and pains, stomach issues, eating or weight fluctuations.
  • Substance abuse: The misuse of drugs, alcohol, or other substances to deal with feelings or symptoms.
  • Feelings of hopelessness: Prolonged thoughts of death or suicide, as well as recurrent feelings of regret, guilt, or worthlessness.
  • Performance changes: Reductions in a job, school, or academic performance; failure to fulfill obligations.
  • Changes in energy levels: feeling drained, unmotivated, or agitated even after getting enough sleep.

 

Risk Factors

Depending on the particular condition and individual, there are several risk factors for mental health disorders. Still, there are a few common characteristics that could make having a psychological disorder more likely. Here are a few instances:

  • Genetic predisposition: Genetic factors can raise the likelihood of getting a mental health condition if there is a family history of mental illness.
  • Biological factors: Hormonal fluctuations, anatomical anomalies, or imbalances in brain chemistry can all play a role in the emergence of mental health issues.
  • Environmental factors: Mental health disorders might arise more frequently when a person is exposed to traumatic events, abusive situations, stressful life events, or major life changes.
  • Persistent medical illnesses: Developing mental health disorders can be more likely in people with certain medical conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, neurological disorders, or persistent pain.
  • Substance abuse: Abusing drugs, alcohol, or prescription medications can raise the risk of mental health disorders or make current symptoms worse.
  • Social and economic factors: Mental health illnesses can arise as a result of socioeconomic disadvantage, poverty, unemployment, social isolation, or limited access to services and assistance.

 

Diagnosis

When diagnosing mental health illnesses, a trained healthcare provider typically a psychiatrist, psychologist, or clinical social worker must conduct a thorough assessment. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), published by the World Health Organisation, are two examples of classification systems that provide criteria for diagnosis.

An outline of the diagnostic procedure is provided below;

  • The initial step in the diagnosis procedure is a comprehensive clinical examination, which may involve observations of the patient’s behavior and symptoms as well as interviews and self-report questionnaires.
  • Diagnostic standards: Medical practitioners use the DSM or ICD’s standardized diagnostic standards to assess if a patient fits the criteria for a particular mental health condition.
  • A medical evaluation could be performed to rule out any underlying medical issues that might be causing the patient’s symptoms.
  • Collateral information: To get further context and understanding of the person’s symptoms and functioning, information from family members, carers, or other pertinent sources may be acquired.
  • The diagnostic process for complex or severe mental health issues may entail a multidisciplinary team of healthcare specialists in certain instances.
  • When diagnosing mental health issues, healthcare practitioners consider cultural variables and diversity to ensure that the diagnosis is culturally appropriate.

 

Treatment Options

The standard course of treatment for mental health issues includes psychotherapy, medicine, lifestyle modifications, and support services. An outline of typical treatment modalities is provided below:

  • Psychotherapy: Also referred to as talk therapy or counselling, psychotherapy is attending sessions with a qualified therapist to explore ideas, emotions, and actions as well as to acquire coping mechanisms for symptom management.
  • Psychiatric drugs, including mood stabilizers, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anxiety pills, can be administered to treat mental health conditions.
  • Modifications to lifestyle: Adopting healthy behaviors that promote mental health and well-being can include frequent exercise, eating a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, managing stress, and abstaining from drugs.
  • Assistance services: People with mental health illnesses can benefit from the emotional, educational, and practical support offered by support groups, peer support programs, and community resources.
  • Hospitalisation: To guarantee safety and offer comprehensive treatment and support, psychiatric hospitalization may be required in situations involving acute symptoms or severe mental health crises.
  • Supplementary and alternative therapies: Some people may benefit from using art therapy, mindfulness meditation, yoga, acupuncture, or other supplementary techniques in addition to conventional treatment.

 

Prevention Strategies

Preventing mental health disorders involves a combination of individual, community, and societal interventions aimed at lowering risk factors and increasing protective factors that support mental well-being.

Here are some prevention strategies for mental health disorders:

  • Promoting Mental Health Awareness and Education: Using educational campaigns, workshops, and community gatherings, this initiative aims to lower stigma, raise public knowledge of mental health issues, and encourage mental health literacy.
  • Early Intervention and Screening Programs: To identify people who are at risk and give prompt assistance and treatment, early intervention programs and routine screening for mental health disorders should be implemented in healthcare settings, schools, workplaces, and community organizations.
  • Building Resilience and Coping Skills: To improve people’s capacity to cope with stressors and challenges, resilience-building programs, stress management seminars, mindfulness training, and psychoeducation are used to foster coping strategies, emotional regulation techniques, and resilience.
  • Creating Supportive Environments: Creating welcoming and inclusive environments that foster social interaction, a sense of belonging, and easy access to resources and support systems in communities, businesses, schools, and healthcare facilities.
  • Addressing Social Determinants of Mental Health: The social determinants of mental health, which include trauma, discrimination, poverty, inequality, and traumatic childhood experiences, are addressed through community-based initiatives, social policies, and economic interventions.

 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
  3. American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Health and Behavioral Health Conditions. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/topics/health-disparities/conditions.
  4. Attention Deficit Disorder Association (ADDA). (n.d.). Symptoms of ADHD. Retrieved from https://add.org/adhd-symptoms-test/.
  5. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
  6. Allen, J., Balfour, R., Bell, R., et al. (2014). Social determinants of mental health. International Review of Psychiatry, 26(4), 392-407.
  7. American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Understanding Psychological Testing and Assessment. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/assessment.
  8. American Psychiatric Association. (2017). APA Mental Health Disparities Program. Retrieved from https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/cultural-competency/mental-health-disparities.
  9. American Psychiatric Association. (2016). Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder. Retrieved from https://psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.books.9780890 426760.dsm06.
  10. Barry, M. M., Clarke, A. M., Jenkins, R., & Patel, V. (2013). A systematic review of the effectiveness of mental health promotion interventions for young people in low and middle income countries. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 835.
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2021). Mental Health and Chronic Diseases. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/workplacehealthpromotion/tools- resources/workplace-health/mental-health/index.html.
  12. Chmitorz, A., Kunzler, A., Helmreich, I., et al. (2018). Intervention studies to foster resilience—a systematic review and proposal for a resilience framework in future intervention studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 59, 78-100.
  13. Fazel, M., Patel, V., Thomas, S., et al. (2014). Mental health interventions in schools in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet Psychiatry, 1(5), 388-398.
  14. Gilbody, S., Bower, P., Fletcher, J., et al. (2006). Collaborative care for depression: A cumulative meta-analysis and review of longer-term outcomes. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(21), 2314-2321.
  15. Henderson, M., Brooks, S. K., Del Busso, L., et al. (2018). Shame! Self-stigmatisation as an obstacle to sick doctors returning to work: A qualitative study. BMJ Open, 8(8), e021760.
  16. Hofmann, S. G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I. J., Sawyer, A. T., & Fang, A. (2012). The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36(5), 427–440. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-012-9476-1.
  17. Harvard Health Publishing. (2018). Yoga for anxiety and depression. Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/mind-and-mood/yoga-for- anxiety-and-depression.
  18. Kandel, E. R., Schwartz, J. H., Jessell, T. M., Siegelbaum, S. A., & Hudspeth, A. J. (2013). Principles of Neural Science (5th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.
  19. Kutcher, S., Wei, Y., & Coniglio, C. (2016). Mental health literacy: Past, present, and future. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 61(3), 154-158.
  20. Mental Health America (MHA). (n.d.). Mental Health in the Workplace. Retrieved from https://www.mhanational.org/workplace-mental-health.
  21. McLaughlin, K. A., & Lambert, H. K. (2017). Child trauma exposure and psychopathology: Mechanisms of risk and resilience. Current Opinion in Psychology, 14, 29-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2016.12.005.
  22. Mental Health America (MHA). (n.d.). Support Groups. Retrieved from https://www.mhanational.org/find-support-groups.
  23. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (2020). Depression. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml.
  24. National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI). (n.d.). Mental Health Conditions. Retrieved from https://www.nami.org/About- Mental-Illness/Mental-Health-Conditions.
  25. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (n.d.). Mental Health Information. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/index.shtml.
  26. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (n.d.). Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/research/research-funded-by-nimh/rdoc/index.shtml.
  27. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (2021). Mental Health Medications. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/mental-health- medications/index.shtml.
  28. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). (2021). Behavioral Health Treatments and Services. Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/find-treatment.
  29. Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC). (n.d.). Risk and Protective Factors. Retrieved from https://www.sprc.org/about-.
  30. Southwick, S. M., Bonanno, G. A., Masten, A. S., et al. (2014). Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5(1), 25338.
  31. Sullivan, P. F., Neale, M. C., & Kendler, K. S. (2000). Genetic epidemiology of major depression: Review and meta-analysis. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(10), 1552-1562. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.10.1552.
  32. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). (2021). Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders. Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/find- help/mental-health-substance-use.
  33. Schuch, F. B., Vancampfort, D., Firth, J., Rosenbaum, S., Ward, P. B., Silva, E. S., … & Stubbs, B. (2017). Physical activity and incident depression: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. American Journal of Psychiatry, 175(7), 631-648. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.16111223.
  34. Van’t Hof, E., Cuijpers, P., & Stein, D. J. (2009). Self-help and Internet-guided interventions in depression and anxiety disorders: A systematic review of meta-analyses. CNS Spectrums, 14(2 Suppl 3), 34-40.
  35. World Health Organization. (2021). International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Retrieved from https://www.who.int/standards/classifications/classification-of-diseases.
  36. World Health Organization. (2014). Social determinants of mental health. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/mental_health/publications/gulbenkian_paper_social_determinants_of_mental_health/en/.
  37. World Health Organization. (2017). Promoting mental health: Concepts, emerging evidence, practice: Summary report. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/promoting_mhh.pdf
  38. World Health Organization. (2021). International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Retrieved from https://www.who.int/standards/classifications/classification-of-diseases.

 

Share Post

By Helen

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *