Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder that is common among women of reproductive age (age 15 to 44 years) . It affects the ovaries and ovulation which is usually seen at early child bearing age. Research found that about 70 percent of women are yet to be diagnosed. The cause of PCOS has not been identified but if it is discovered early and treatment given alongside reduction in weight,  the risk of developing problems such as type 2 diabetes and heart diseases will be minimized.

Causes

Although the cause is unknown, this disease can be influenced by several factors;

  • Genetic: It was found in studies that PCOS is seen in families. Certain genes influence these disease
  • High androgen in the ovary can lead to acne or hairiness
  • Inflammation: Studies have shown that women with PCOS have a high amount of inflammation that stimulates the production of excess ovarian androgen.
  • Elevated Insulin: Inflammation is generated by excess insulin and this leads to weight gain which is the principal cause of PCOS. It also leads to heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

The most common signs and symptoms are;

  • Irregular menstruation
  • Heavy menstruation
  • Increased weight
  • Headaches 
  • Hair growth on the face and body
  • Male pattern hair loss

PCOS symptoms gets worsened when you are Obese

Complications of PCOS

  • Infertility
  • Sleep apnea that causes breathing to pause during the night
  • Miscarriage
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Depression
  • Endometrial cancer from the endometrium (lining of the uterus or womb)
  • Pregnancy-induced high blood pressure

HOW IS PCOS TREATED

Change in Lifestyle

 A healthy diet combined with 30 minutes of moderate physical activities three times a week can help to reduce body weight by 5 to 10 percent and this improves the symptoms

Medical Treatments

  • Birth control pills that contain estrogen and progestin when taken daily can reduce the production of androgen and regulate estrogen. This can lead to reduced risk of endometrial cancer.
  • Progestin taken 10 to 14 days in one or two months can regulate your menstruation and this can prevent endometrial cancer. 

You should visit a gynaecologist If;

  • There are irregular or absent periods
  • Infertility
  • Too much androgen that could result in acne, excess facial and body hair, high blood pressure, and hair loss
  • Obesity that is around 

References

  1. Fatimeh R.T and Samira B.G. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.https://www.intechopen.com/books/contemporary-gynecologic-practice/polycystic-ovary-syndrome- 2015
  2. Zacur HA. Epidemiology, clinical manifestations and pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome. Adv Stud Med. 2003;3:S733-S9
  3. Buggs C, Rosenfield RL. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescence. Endocrinology and Metabolic Clinics of North America. 2005;34(3):677-705
  4. Barbieri RL, et al. Clinical manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome in adults. https://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 27, 2017.
  5. Wendy A March, Vivienne M Moore, Kristyn J Willson, David I W Phillips, Robert J Norman, Michael J Davies. The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in a community sample assessed under contrasting diagnostic criteria. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19910321/ 
  6. Jones MR, et al. Genetic determinants of polycystic ovary syndrome: Progress and future directions. Fertility and Sterility. 2016;106:25.
  7. Daniel A Dumesic, Rogerio A Lobo. Cancer risk and PCOS.  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0039128X1300086X 2013
  8. Teede H, Deeks A, Moran L. Polycystic ovary syndrome, a complex condition with psychological and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2909929/ 2010
Share Post

By Helen

One thought on “POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *